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paco.garcia[at]ebd.csic.es

Phyllomorpha laciniata

Publications filtered by: Phyllomorpha laciniata

The adaptive significance of male egg carrying in the golden egg bug: defining research avenues. A reply to Härdling et al
Garcia-Gonzalez, F., Roldan, E. R. S., Ponz, F. & Gomendio, M. 2007 The adaptive significance of male egg carrying in the golden egg bug: defining research avenues. A reply to Härdling et al Ecological Entomology, 32: 578-581
¿Quién se ocupa de las crías?
Gomendio, M. & Garcia-Gonzalez, F. 2005 ¿Quién se ocupa de las crías? Quercus, 232: 46-51
Abstract
El cuidado de las crías no siempre recae sobre el mismo sexo. En los mamíferos, las hembras actúan como madres sacrificadas. En otros casos es el padre el que asume esta responsabilidad, como ocurre en algunas especies de peces. Entre las aves suele ser una tarea compartida por machos y hembras. Puesto que todas las combinaciones son posibles, cabe preguntarse ¿qué factores determinan que uno u otro sexo se ocupe de las crías?
Sperm competition mechanisms, confidence of paternity, and the evolution of paternal care in the golden egg bug (Phyllomorpha laciniata)
Garcia-Gonzalez, F., Núñez, Y., Ponz, F., Roldán, E. R. S., and Gomendio, M. 2003 Sperm competition mechanisms, confidence of paternity, and the evolution of paternal care in the golden egg bug (Phyllomorpha laciniata) Evolution, 57:1078-1088
Abstract

Theoretical models predict how paternal effort should vary depending on confidence of paternity and on the trade-offs between present and future reproduction. In this study we examine patterns of sperm precedence in Phyllomorpha laciniata and how confidence of paternity influences the willingness of males to carry eggs. Female golden egg bugs show a flexible pattern of oviposition behavior, which results in some eggs being carried by adults (mainly males) and some being laid on plants, where mortality rates are very high. Adults are more vulnerable to predators when carrying eggs; thus, it has been suggested that males should only accept eggs if there are chances that at least some of the eggs will be their true genetic offspring. We determined the confidence of paternity for naturally occurring individuals and its variation with the time. Paternity of eggs fertilized by the last males to mate with females previously mated in the field has been determined using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The exclusion probability was 98%, showing that AFLP markers are suitable for paternity assignment. Sperm mixing seems the most likely mechanism of sperm competition, because the last male to copulate with field females sires an average of 43% of the eggs laid during the next five days. More importantly, the proportion of eggs sired does not change significantly during that period. We argue that intermediate levels of paternity can select for paternal care in this system because: (1) benefits of care in terms of offspring survival are very high; (2) males have nothing to gain from decreasing their parental effort in a given reproductive event because sperm mixing makes it difficult for males to reach high paternity levels and males are left with no cues to assess paternity; (3) males cannot chose to care for their offspring exclusively because they can neither discriminate their own eggs, nor can they predict when their own eggs will be produced; and (4) males suffer no loss of further matings with other females when they carry eggs. Thus, our findings do not support the traditional view that paternal investment is expected to arise only in species where confidence of paternity is high. The results suggest that females maximize the chances that several males will accept eggs at different times by promoting a mechanism of sperm mixing that ensures that all males that have copulated with a female have some chance of fathering offspring, that this probability remains constant with time, and that males have no cues as to when their own offspring will be produced.

Oviposition site selection and oviposition stimulation by conspecifics in the golden egg bug (Phyllormorpha laciniata): implications on female fitness
Garcia-Gonzalez, F. and Gomendio, M. 2003 Oviposition site selection and oviposition stimulation by conspecifics in the golden egg bug (Phyllormorpha laciniata): implications on female fitness Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 53: 385-392
Abstract
Phyllomorpha laciniata Vill. (Heteroptera, Coreidae) females lay eggs on the host plant and on the backs of conspecifics. Since egg survival is greater when eggs develop on the backs of conspecifics than when laid on plants, we predict that females should prefer to lay eggs on conspecifics. In addition, because conspecifics are a high-quality site that represents a limiting resource, females should experience oviposition stimulation upon an encounter with a conspecific. Our results reveal that, when both the host plant and conspecifics are available simultaneously, females lay eggs preferentially on conspecifics. The results also support the second prediction, since females housed with conspecifics lay more than twice the number of eggs than isolated females. Isolated females do not seem to retain eggs, suggesting that oviposition stimulation is the result of an acceleration of egg-maturation rates. Other studies have found oviposition stimulation by mating and have suggested that it is the result of male strategies to increase short-term male reproductive success at some cost to females. The evolutionary scenario of our model organism seems to be quite different since females benefit greatly from increasing egg laying when there are conspecifics, because the advantages in terms of offspring survival are likely to translate into substantial increases in female reproductive success.